LAS VEGAS – Moderate intake of wine was associated with a 37% lower prevalence of chronic kidney disease in healthy adults, compared with no wine consumption at all, according to an analysis of data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
In addition, survey respondents with chronic kidney disease (which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease) who drank less than one glass of wine a day had 29% lower odds of cardiovascular disease, compared with those who drank no wine at all.
“Since this is an observational study and we looked at the data as a cross-sectional analysis, we can’t say that there’s a cause and effect relationship,” lead author Dr. Tapan Mehta emphasized in an interview at a meeting sponsored by the National Kidney Foundation. “But this is the first time that [the link between] wine intake and cardiovascular disease risk has been studied in patients who have kidney disease.”
Dr. Mehta, of the Division of Renal Disease and Hypertension at the University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Center, Aurora, and his associates performed a cross-sectional analysis of 5,852 men and women aged 21 years and older who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 2003 and 2006. The researchers analyzed wine intake in three categories: none, less than one glass per day, and one or more glasses per day. They examined the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (defined as MDRD [Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group] estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or albumin/creatinine ratio of 30 mg/g or greater) according to wine intake. Next, they examined the relationship between wine intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD), defined as history of angina, myocardial infarction, or stroke.
The mean age of study participants was 48 years, and 52% were female. Of the 5,852 individuals, 2,455 drank less than one glass of wine per day, and 1,031 had kidney disease.
In unadjusted analysis, those who drank less than one glass of wine per day had a 0.63 reduced odds of chronic kidney disease (CKD), compared with those who did not drink wine (Pless than .0001). This association remained significant after adjustment for demographics, waist circumference, diabetes, hypertension, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (odds ratio, 0.75; P = .004).
The researchers observed that the relationship between wine intake and kidney disease appeared to be driven by a significant association between consumption of less than one glass of wine per day and microalbuminuria, which was defined as an albumin/creatinine ratio of 30 mg/g or greater (OR, 0.62; P = .006). No association between wine intake and an estimated glomerular filtration rate of less than 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 was seen. “We didn’t expect that,” Dr. Mehta said.
When the analysis was limited to the 1,031 individuals with CKD, the odds of CVD was 0.71 (P=.02) for those drinking less than one glass of wine per day, compared with nondrinkers after adjustment for demographics and CVD risk factors.
Dr. Mehta acknowledged certain limitations of the study, including its observational design and the potential for recall bias in the food intake component of NHANES. “Also, there is no specification as to red wine or white wine consumption,” he said. “We also did not look at other alcohol, such as beer or liquor.”