ED indicates erectile dysfunction; PSA, prostate-specific antigen; DRE, digital rectal examination.
a According to the National Cancer Institute Dictionary of Cancer Terms, active surveillance indicates a treatment plan that involves closely watching a patient's condition but not giving treatment unless there are changes in test results that show the condition is getting worse. Active surveillance may be used to avoid or delay the need for treatments such as radiation therapy or surgery, which can cause side effects or other problems. During active surveillance, certain exams and tests are done on a regular schedule. It may be used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer. It is a type of expectant management. Watchful waiting indicates closely watching a patient's condition but not giving treatment unless symptoms appear or change. Watchful waiting is sometimes used in conditions that progress slowly. It is also used when the risks of treatment are greater than the possible benefits. During watchful waiting, patients may be given certain tests and exams. Watchful waiting is sometimes used in prostate cancer. It is a type of expectant management.