Predictors of Morbidity and Mortality After BPH Surgery

N Bhojani, G Gandaglia, A Sood, A Rai, D Pucheril, SL Chang, PI Karakiewicz, M Menon, K Olugbade, N Ruhotina, JD Sammon, S Sukumar, M Sun, KR Ghani, M Schmid, B Varda, AS Kibel, KC Zorn, QD Trinh

IPBABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE
With the aging population, it is becoming increasingly important to identify patients at risk for postsurgical complications who might be more suited for conservative treatment. We sought to identify predictors of morbidity after surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) using a large national contemporary population-based cohort.

METHODS
Relying on the American College of Surgeons National Surgical-Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP; 2006–2011) database, we evaluated outcomes after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser vaporization of the prostate (LVP), and laser enucleation of the prostate (LEP). Outcomes included blood-transfusion rates, length of stay, complications, reintervention rates, and perioperative mortality. Multivariable logistic-regression analysis evaluated the predictors of perioperative morbidity and mortality.

RESULTS
Overall, 4794 (65.2%), 2439 (33.1%), and 126 (1.7%) patients underwent TURP, LVP, and LEP, respectively. No significant difference in overall complications (P=0.3) or perioperative mortality (P=0.5) between the three surgical groups was found. LVP was found to be associated with decreased blood transfusions (odds ratio [OR]=0.21; P=0.001), length of stay (OR=0.12; P<0.001) and reintervention rates (OR=0.63; P=0.02). LEP was found to be associated with decreased prolonged length of stay (OR=0.35; P=0.01). Men with advanced age at surgery and non-Caucasians were at increased risk of morbidity and mortality. In contrast, normal preoperative albumin and higher preoperative hematocrit (>30%) levels were the only predictors of lower overall complications and perioperative mortality.

CONCLUSIONS
All three surgical modalities for BPH management were found to be safe. Advanced age and non-Caucasian race were independent predictors of adverse outcomes after BPH surgery. In patients with these attributes, conservative treatment might be a reasonable alternative. Also, preoperative hematocrit and albumin levels represent reliable predictors of adverse outcomes, suggesting that these markers should be evaluated before BPH surgery.

N Bhojani, G Gandaglia, A Sood, A Rai, D Pucheril, SL Chang, PI Karakiewicz, M Menon, K Olugbade, N Ruhotina, JD Sammon, S Sukumar, M Sun, KR Ghani, M Schmid, B Varda, AS Kibel, KC Zorn, QD Trinh
Morbidity and Mortality After Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Surgery: Data From the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program.
J Endourol 2014 Jul 01;28(7)831-40