Risk Factors for Facial Melasma In Women: A Case-Control Study

AC Handel, PB Lima, VM Tonolli, LD Miot, HA Miot

MelasmaABSTRACT

BACKGROUND
Melasma is a localised chronic acquired hypermelanosis, common in adult women and which has an important impact on their life quality. Its pathology is unknown, despite some recognised triggering factors.

OBJECTIVES
To evaluate risk factors for developing facial melasma in women.

METHODS
Case-control study involving adult women with or without facial melasma, paired by age. Variables were grouped in hierarchical levels: personal characteristic data, exposure variables, linked to hormonal stimuli and IDATE-T questionnaire (State-trait anxiety inventory); and analysed by conditional multiple logistic regression.

RESULTS
We evaluated 207 patients and 207 controls. Mean age was 38.7 years. Cases differed from controls for phototype, amerindian ancestry (OR=2.59), years of beach or rural residence (OR=1.06), time exposed to sun at work (OR=1.65), time exposed to sun in leisure activities (OR=1.04), antidepressant/anxiolytic use (OR=4.96), menstrual irregularity (OR=3.83), pregnancy history (OR=3,59), years of oral contraceptive use (OR=1.23), and anxiety scores (OR=1.08). Family history of melasma was reported in 61% of cases and 13% of controls (OR=10.4).

CONCLUSIONS
Facial melasma is independently associated to elements linked to pigmentation capacity, family ancestry, chronic sun exposure, sexual hormone stimuli, psychotropics and anxiety traits. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

AC Handel, PB Lima, VM Tonolli, LD Miot, HA Miot.
Risk Factors for Facial Melasma In Women: A Case-Control Study
Br J Dermatol 2014 Apr 19;[EPub Ahead of Print]